By taking over these tasks, chatbots will allow teachers to concentrate on establishing a stronger relationship with students. They will have the opportunity to provide them with personal guidance and enhance the curriculum with their own research interests. Consequently, this will be especially helpful for students with learning disabilities.
Exploring the long-term effects, optimal integration strategies, and addressing ethical considerations should take the forefront in research initiatives. Learning performance is defined as the students’ combined scores accumulated from the project-based learning activities in this study. Henceforth, we speculated that EC might influence the need for cognition as it aids in simplifying learning tasks (Ciechanowski et al., 2019), especially for teamwork. According to Schmulian and Coetzee (2019), there is still scarcity in mobile-based chatbot application in the educational domain, and while ECs in MIM has been gaining momentum, it has not instigated studies to address its implementation. Furthermore, there are also limited studies in strategies that can be used to improvise ECs role as an engaging pedagogical communication agent (Chaves & Gerosa, 2021).
In addition, the responses of the learner not only determine the chatbot’s responses, but provide data for the teacher to get to know the learner better. This allows the teacher to tweak the chatbot’s design to improve the experience. Equally if not more importantly, it can reveal gaps in knowledge or flawed assumptions the learners hold, which can inform the design of new learning experiences — chatbot-mediated or not. Like any technology, access to these tools varies and lack of access can perpetuate existing inequities.
Educators and researchers must continue to explore the potential benefits and limitations of this technology to fully realize its potential. The latest chatbot models have showcased remarkable capabilities in natural language processing and generation. Additional research is required to investigate the role and potential of these newer chatbots in the field of education. Therefore, our paper focuses on reviewing and discussing the findings of these new-generation chatbots’ use in education, including their benefits and challenges from the perspectives of both educators and students. Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies have increasingly become vital in our everyday lives. Education is one of the most visible domains in which these technologies are being used.
One of them presented in (D’mello & Graesser, 2013) asks the students a question, then waits for the student to write an answer. Then the motivational agent reacts to the answer with varying emotions, including empathy and approval, to motivate students. Similarly, the chatbot in (Schouten et al., 2017) shows various reactionary emotions and motivates students with encouraging phrases such as “you have already achieved a lot today”.
When it comes to Learning Management Systems, chatbots aren’t just another tech concept. Chatbots are a drastic change in the way we teach and learn, both in schools and in the business world. Let’s understand why chatbots deserve your attention and how they solve some of the most pressing challenges in the learning industry today. For now, most chatbots offer customization options, the more advanced ones are even capable of switching between modes automatically. Chatbots can understand the level of expertise of a learner, change the tone of the conversation, and pick information that is well fitted to a particular level. Obviously, such solutions are high-tech and difficult to develop without professional software development expertise.
Users should provide feedback to OpenAI, Google, and other relevant creators and stakeholders regarding any concerns or issues they encounter while using chatbots. Reporting any instances of misuse or ethical violations will help to improve the system and its guidelines. Users should be aware of potential biases in the training data that chatbots are based on and take measures to mitigate the amplification of biases in the generated content. Chatbots’ expertise is based on the training data it has received (although they do have the ability to “learn” with exposure to new information), and they may not possess the depth of knowledge in specialized or niche areas. In such cases, subject matter experts should be consulted for accurate and comprehensive information.
Recently, chatbots have been utilized in various fields (Ramesh et al., 2017). Most importantly, chatbots played a critical role in the education field, in which most researchers (12 articles; 33.33%) developed chatbots used to teach computer science topics (Fig. 4). Hobert and Meyer von Wolff (2019), Pérez et al. (2020), and Hwang and Chang (2021) examined the evaluation methods used to assess the effectiveness of educational chatbots. The authors identified that several evaluation methods such as surveys, experiments, and evaluation studies measure acceptance, motivation, and usability.
Since 2001, politicians, school principals and teachers have been telling us that no child should be left behind. The educational problems that couldn’t be solved by rules, acts and laws, will finally disappear in the next few decades. This is a fact thanks to fast technological advance and beneficial cooperation between socially aware corporations and educational institutions. Although chatbots are nothing more than simple code snippets, in this equation, they are the tool that is going to offer equal opportunity to every child. It is that tool that will help them to grow, learn and use their skills in the best possible way. There are dozens of platforms that allow teachers to create free chatbots for specific messaging apps.
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